Macmillan Guide to Economics (+ CD-ROM) Lilia Raitskaya, Stuart Cochrane

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This helps governments and companies set prices at the correct level for a particular time and plan price increases. For example, during a very cold winter, demand for heating fuel like gas or coal will rise at any price.

If the winter is unusually warm, then demand for fuel will tall Keononiisls say that these situations cause a shift in the demand curve You can see this in iigure 2. Now read the text again and decide whether these statements are true or false. The law of demand says that when people want more of something, its price rises. The graph below shcrws one of the basic relationships in economics: If you were a producer, how would you react to increases, or the opposite - decreases m demand?

First, read text 2 again and look at the diagram for exercise F Listening. Then make notes on the following:. With a partner, look at the supply and demand charts for ice cream and answer the following questions together.

Now write a short report describing the information in the charts. Organise your report like this. Explain briefly what the charts are about and, very generally, what they showBegin like this: Both charts show demand and supply curves for ice cream.

The charts also show Describe the supply curve for ice cream. Explain the relationship between price and supply. Give example figures from the chart to illustrate your points. Note that the supply curve is the same for both months. The supply curve for both December and June is the same. When production is low.

Describe the general relationship between price and demand. The charts also show that there is a relationship between demand for ice cream and price. Describe the difference between the demand curve for December and June. Give reasons for the shift in demand. However, there is a big difference between the demand curve for December and the demand curve for June.

Vet for most of human history people lived without money. For thousands of years human societies had very simple economies There were no shops, markets or traders. There were no employers, paid worki rs or salaries. Today, we call this kind of economy the tmditioiuil п-тинпу. They live lives of subsistence. That means they hunt, gather or grow only enough food to live. There is almost no surplus in the traditional economy, and there is almost no property Families may own simple accommodation, but land is shared by all the tribe Flconomie decisions are taken according to the customs of the tribe.

For example, every family may need to give some of the crops thev grow to the tribal leader, but keep the rest for themselves. They do it because the tribe has always done it. Custom, also, decides what jobs people do in the traditional economy. People generally do he jobs that their parents and grandparents did liefore them. Whatevei the work is, and whoever does it. This is because traditional economies have almost no technology.

Physical strength and knowledge ot the environment are the tools for survival. Like any other economic sy stem, the traditional economy has its benefits and drawbacks Probably the biggest benefit is that these are peaceful societies. People consume almost everything they produce and own practically nothing.

They arc equally poor. For all these reasons, war is almost unknown in these societies. However, people who live in traditional societies are among the poorest people in the work!.

Because custom decides what people do, nothing in these societies ever changes, because there is no technology, people depend on nature to survive They have no protection from environmental disasters like droughts and floods.

They are always in danger of hunger and disease. Hut the traditional economy is in danger itself. The advantages of the traditional economy The future of the traditional economy The disadvantages of the traditional economy The importance of tradition Work in the traditional economy.

Now listen and complete the notes about the Mbuti. Use one to three words for each gap. Then listen again and check your answers. Can you think of any examples supporting or disagreeing with this idea 0. FAQ Обратная связь Вопросы и предложения.

Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Московский государственный агроинженерный университет им. Lilia Raitskaya Stuart Cochrane. Материал курса изложен в увлекательной форме, хорошим и доступным языком.

Do yo i know much about economics? Before you read 13 What does economics study? Our everyday 4 Hi. What are microeconomics and macroeconomics? В В Comprehension Now read the text again and match each paragraph with the correct heading.

If you live in a modern economy, life is quite easy. Before the Industrial Revolution, life was much harder. Do you have any idea where the word economics comes from? Do you know the names of any famous economists from the past or anything about their ideas? P D Vocabulary Complete each sentence with a word or phrase from the box. Sand and limestone are the needed to make glass. The to make a car involves many people and machines The extra money a company makes is called People want from the products they buy.

Gold and silver are examples of Another word for idea is The is the number oi people a country has. They saw the economy as a way to make the state strong. И E Comprehension Now read the text again and decide whether these statements are true or false. Aristotle did not use the word economics, but he did write about economic ideas. Can you fill in any of the information?

G Speaking Discuss these questions with your partner. What use is the study oi economics? What trade-offs do you make every day? How do the decisions we make affect the rest of the world? Task Give a two-minute talk on the history of economic thought. First, read text 2 again and make notes below on the following. Magazine article Write a magazine article about one famous thinker from Russian history.

What were his her influential thoughts? Before you read Discuss the following with your partner. Jz A Vocabulary from one year to Choose the correct word. Prices usually the next.

People work in order to money. Einstein is famous for his of relativity. The police search for to help them find the criminal. If you blue with red you get purple.

Government show that crime is rising People their money in bank accounts. Уои can use a ruler to the siso of things. In experiments, scientists try to find out what makes change. An expert in a subject who works and teaches at a university: You may think that this depends on two things: We can express your theory as an econometric formula: However, there is also a practical side to econometrics.

The same maths and statistics are used by governments and business managers, as well as academics. Econometrics can help governments and companies find out how well they are doing. With the data from all this mathematics, they can make better decisions and plan better for the future. A only good for proving theories. В good for making practical economic decisions. С only good for academic work.

Before you listen Discuss the following with your partner. The table below is an example of econometric data. What does the table show? Is this time-series analysis or cross-sectional analysis? И С Listening 4 What do you think are the missing numbers? Weekly spending by children aged seven to fifteen in the UK Before you read 13 What does economics study? Before you read Discuss these questions with your partner. Why do you think gold is expensive?

They ill agree on ii because it makes sense even to non-economists like you and iik Demand is how much of the same good n service pcopk would like " buy. However, something else has caused a general increase in demand at all prices. The law of demand is easy to understand. There are no exceptions to the law of demand. Price elasticity shows how much prices change when demand changes.

There are many reasons why people decide to buy something, not only price. A shift in demand changes the shape of the demand curve. Talk about the graph with your partner. Can you label the diagram with the words from the box? F Listening Now listen and check if you were right. Task Give a two-minute talk on the relationship between demand and supply. Then make notes on the following: И H Writing With a partner, look at the supply and demand charts for ice cream and answer the following questions together.

What do the two charts compare? Посмотреть другие результаты поиска. Спасибо, ваше сообщение отправлено В ближайшее время мы пришлем сообщение с ценой и возможными сроками выполнения заказа. Заказать работу Обсудить цену и условия. Отзывы , авторы , цены и гарантии. Lilia Raitskaya, Stuart Cochrane Издательство: Macmillan Publishers Limited Страниц: Пособие может быть использовано как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы.

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